Sunday, December 21, 2008

References for Pragmatics

Hi all,

It's good to hear someone is interested in pragmatics.
Yes, when analyzing an utterance, we have to consider the factors outside the language. That will include the SPEAKING (Setting, Participants, Ends, Acts, Key, Instruments, Norms, and Genres) factors of Dell Hymes.
For more details about pragmatics, you may read:
Jenny Thomas: Meaning into Words
Jacob L. Mey: Pragmatics, An Introduction
Vershueren et al: Handbook of Pragmatics

I also learn much about pragmatics from CARLA.

Okay... there are many other books and resources on pragmatics. You can start with the ones I mention here.

Regards,
Depe

31 comments:

marinaC1307512 said...

assalamualaikum, Mr DP
Implicature
Implicature: to imply is to hint, suggest, or convey some meaning indirectly by means of language. Implicature provides some explicit account of how it is possible to mean more than one language.
Implicature exhibits the four major distinguishing properties:
1. Cancelability
2. Non-detachability (inference base on meaning)
3. Calculability (it should be able to construct an argument)
4. Non-conventionality
Grice ‘s theory of implicature or cooperative principle :
1. The maxim of quality: true information and enough evidence
Example:
A: Dimana kampus D3 Ekonomi Uns?
B: Mesen (fulfill the maxim)
2. The maxim of quantity: informative enough
Example:
A: Kenapa ga balas surat cintaq?
B: aq nyuci, setrika, ngerjain skripsi, kamu harusnya hafam! (Break the maxim because not informative enough)
3. The maxim of relevance : relevant
Example:
A: Kapan saya boleh melamarmu?
B: bulan depan 1000 hari nenekku. (Break the maxim)
4. The maxim of manner: be brief, orderly, not ambiguous, and clear.
Example:
A: mau nonton komedi ato drama?
B: drama ja, bagus! (Fulfill the maxim)
In short, this maxim specify what participants have to do in order to converse in maximally efficient , rational, cooperative way; they should speak sincerely, relevantly, and clearly while providing sufficient information.
These maxims are not arbitrary conventions, but rather describe rational mean for conducting cooperative exchange.
Presupposition
Presupposition constitutes assumption or inferences that implicit in particular linguistic expression. A presupposition must be mutually known or assumed by the speaker and addressee for the utterance to be considered appropriate in context. It will generally remain a necessary assumption whether the utterance is placed in the form of an assertion, denial, or question, and can be associated with a specific lexical item or grammatical feature (presupposition trigger) in the utterance.
Presupposition triggers:
1. Definite description: see
2. Factive: regret, aware, realize, know, be proud of
3. Implicative: manage, forget
4. Change of state: stop, begin, continue
5. Iterative: again, before, return, repeat
6. Verb of Judging : accuse, criticize
7. Temporal clouses: before , while, since
8. Cleft sentences: it was Ati who…
9. Contrast.
Soon, hopefully, I'll add further information, Sir. Wassalamualaikum.
Tri Marina (C1307512)
non-reg ekstensi '07

Feri said...

Feri Supriyatin C1307522
Implicature
Implicature provides some explicit account of how it is possible to mean (in more general sense) more than what is actually said (Levinson, 1985:97). For example:
A: Can you tell me the time?
B: Well, the milkman has come
From the example above, what is actually said by B is more than what is expressed in B’s answer. In this case both A and B have the same understanding that the milkman came at sometimes. It means at seven o’clock. From the example, b makes an implicature.

Grice identifies as guidelines of this sort four basic maxim of conversation of general principles underlying the efficient co-operative use of language, which jointly express a general co-operative principle (Levinson, 1983:101). These principles are as follows:
1. The maxim of Quality
Try to make your contribution one that is true, specifically:
1) Do not say what you believe to be false, and
2) Do not say that say for which you lack adequate evidence.
2. The maxim of Quantity
This maxim expects each of the participants in a conversation to give information as much as required and will not give information more than what is needed.
1) Make your contribution as informative as required for the current purpose of the exchange, and
2) Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.
3. The maxim Relevance
In a conversation, each of participants must say something that is relevant to the subject they are talking about. Make your contribution relevant.
4. The maxim Manner
The maxim expects each participant to speak clearly and orderly
1) Avoid obscurity
2) Avoid ambiguity
3) Be brief, and
4) Be orderly
c) Presupposition
A presupposition is background belief, relating to an utterance, that
• Must be mutually known or assumed by the speaker and addressee for the utterance to be considered appropriate in context.
• Generally will remain a necessary assumption whether the utterance is placed in the form of an assertion, denial, or question, and
• Can generally be associated with a specific lexical item or grammatical feature (presupposition trigger) in the utterance.
Example:
The utterance John regrets that he stopped doing linguistics before he left the course has the following presuppositions:
• There is someone uniquely identifiable to speaker and addressee as John
• John stopped doing linguistics before he left the course
• John was doing linguistics before he left the course
• John left the course
• John had been at the course

According to George Yule (1996:25) presupposition is ‘something the speaker assumes to the case prior to making an utterance’. Presupposition of a statement will remain constant even when that statement is negated. For example, two statements ‘John’s car is not red’ and ‘John has a car’ have the similar assumption that John has a car and the colour is not red.

jr.agogo rushinlove said...

Implicature
Implicature is an explicit description of how it is possible to mean more than what actually said. This description is understood by the hearer through the SITUATION CONTEXT within their conversation. The speakers no longer to speak completely about what he/she want to speak. Aside, he/she just say the explicit utterance, and the hearer has been understood due to the SITUATION CONTEXT during their conversation.
For the success conversation, both of speaker and hearer should have a deal cooperative within them.

Example:
Mahasiswa= pak, jam berapa sekarang?
Dosen= baiklah, perkuliahan ini kita akhiri sampai disini dulu ya.

It seem that no relation between Mahasiswa’s statement and Dosen’s answer. In fact both of mahasiswa and Dosen understand about what they talk. It is caused of the context within their conversation and their cooperative during conversation.

Presupposition
Presupposition is an explicit assumption about the situation or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for fixed in speech. A presupposition must be mutually known by the speaker and hearer, and the utterance should be considered appropriate in context/situation.

Example:
1. “maafkan saya terlambat lagi”
“lagi” indicate that he/she were late before.


ref:
George Yule
Pesona Bahasa



Y Agung Kurniawan / c1306023

siti said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
the hurricane dodik said...

hello,sir
i want to ask about the final exam
1.From where we must study the subjects? from early beginning (the language) until the last subjects or from morphology until the end?
2. Could you please give some clue about the questions you will give to us in final exam?
thank you sir.
dodik setiyadi
c0307018

siti said...

Presupposition
Presupposition is something the speaker assumes to be the case prior to making an utterance (Yule, 1996: 27). It can be considered as a thing that is assumed to be true before it is proved by participants of speech event. Presupposition has to be owned by the speaker and the hearer in the same concept.
Example:
a. My computer is broken.
b. My computer is not broken.
c. I have a computer.
The sentence of example (c) is a presupposition of the sentence of example (a) and (b). Although the two sentences (a) and (b) have opposite meaning, the underlying presupposition “I have a car” remains true for both.
Implicature
An implicature is anything that is inferred from an utterance but that is not a condition for the truth of the utterance.
Example:
“Some girls were wearing Kebaya at the Ceremony last Monday”. The sentence implicates in most contexts “Not all of the girls were at the ceremony”.
There are two kinds of Implicature:
a. Conventional Impicatures
are not based on the cooperative principle or the maxims, do not have to occur in conversation, do not depend on special contexts for the interpretation.
Example:
Two speakers are talking about Pragmatic lesson in a hospital, at the same time there is a doctor hearing their conversation but the he does not understand what they are talking about.
b. Conversational Implicature
Conversational Implicature classified into two:
- Generalized Conversational Implicature ; an implicature arises without any particular context or special scenario being necessary.
Example: Ali : “Did you invite Bella and Mary?”
Eko : “I invite Bella.”
The implied meaning is that Eko did not like Mary.
- Particular Conversational implicature; an implicature needs a specific context.
Example: Ida : “Coming to the Rina’s birthday?”
Lia : ”My mother is sick.”
Lia will spend her time to take care of her mother due to sick. Lia’s utterance implicates that Lia is not the Rina’s birthday.

Siti Nur Chasanah, C1307531

unstopableboy said...

i'd like to give a comment about implication and presupposition.....


these materials were taken from several web sources

An implicature is anything that is inferred from an utterance but that is not a condition for the truth of the utterance.

There are several kinds of implicature:
1.Actual Implicature
An actual implicature is any potential implicature that is not canceled by its context.
2.Potential Implicature
A potential implicature is an implicature that would arise from any of the components of a given utterance if that component were uttered in some linguistic or extralinguistic context, whether or not the implicature is an actual implicature of the given utterance.
Example :
Some boys didn’t join the final test.
(it means not all the boys join the test, some of them join the test)



Presuppossed
it means of speaker's assumption in making an utterance.

example:
mobil saya rusak
(it indicates that he/she has a car but it is broken)



that's all of my comment
i hope you can accept it

thank you.

Yudha Aldiansyah
C1306025

unstopableboy said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
belleringer said...

Presupposition and implicature is elements of pragmatic. Both of them is study of relation between language and context that are basic to an account of language understanding ( Levinson: 1985-21 ).

a presupposition is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse.

Example:
Dewi regrets that she stopped doing linguistics before she left Cambridge
Presuppositions:
1.There is someone uniquely identifiable to speaker and addressee as Dewi.
2.Dewi stopped doing linguistics before he left Cambridge.
3.Dewi was doing linguistics before he left Cambridge.
4.Dewi left Cambridge.
5.Dewi had been at Cambridge.

implicature is unambiguous account of how it is possible to mean more than what is actually said.
Example:
The expression Some of the girls were at the party implicates in most contexts Not all of the girls were at the party.


prih_c1306020

dewiC1307520 said...

Pagmatics is the study of those relations between language and context that are grammaticalized, or encoded in the structure of language. There are five aspect in pragmatics scope. They are deixis, implicature, presupposition, speech acts, and aspects of discourse structure.
Now I will try to explain the differences between presupposition and implicature.
Presuposition is the relation between a speaker and the appropriateness of a sentence in a context. According to George Yule, presupposition is something the speaker assumes to be the case prior to making an utterance. Speakers and not the sentences have presupposition. Presupposition of statement will remain constant even when that statement is negated. For example when one utters “”I am going to visit my boyfriend, Rino, tonight”. Participants who are involved in the speech event may have an assumption that the speaker has a boyfriend.
Implicature is an implied message that is based on the interpretation of the languge use and its contect of communication.
According to Yule (1996:35) there are two sorts implicature namely conversational implicature and conventional implicture.
a. Conventional implicature is based on the cooperative principle or the maxims of Grice. It does not have to occur in a conversation, and they do not depend on special context for their interpretation. Conventional implicature is associated with specific words and result in additional conveyed meanings when several words are used. For example is the word”but”. Tina suggested pink, but I choose red. That utterance associated tha the expectation between Tina and I is different.
b. Conversational Implicature is an implicature is an implicature that emphasized on the basis of the maxims and context. Grice divides conversational implicature into two parts, namely:
1. Generalized Converasional Implicature
It is implicature that arises without any particular context or special scenario being necessary, for example:
Rina: Did you invite Uci and Sofi?
Yuli: I invite Sofi.
It means that Rina know that Yuli did not like Uci.
2. Particularized Conversational Implicature
It is an implicature that arises become some special factors inherent in the context of utterance and is not normally carried by the sentence used, in short, it is an implicature that needs a specific context. Example:
Ricky: Hey, coming to my sister’s wedding party tonight?
Rio : My uncle also have a wedding party tonight.
From the conversation above, It si seen that Rio was not strictly answered Ricky’s question. However he delivers the response which indirectly completes the speaker’s goal. It implicates that Rio will not attend to Ricky sister’s party.
Grice’s theory of implicature :
1. The maxim of Quality: true information and enough evidence
2. The maxim of Quantity: informative enough, not less or more.
3. The maxim of Relevance: relevant/ have close relationship
4. The maxim of Manner: be perspicuous brief, orderly, not ambiguous, clear not obscure.
(dewi retno pratiwi C1307520)

een... said...

hi sir..
Implicature
An implicature is anything that is inferred from an utterance but that is not a condition for the truth of the utterance.
ex :
Chessy : kok kamu kayaknya tambah kurus to?
Dora : lha berat badanku sekarang jadi 65 kg. Sampe bajuku banyak yang sempit.
It shows that there is no relation between Chessy's question and Dora's answer. It shows the opposite about their statement. But they understand each other because of the context within their conversation.

there are two kinds of implicature :
1. An actual implicature
-> is any potential implicature that is not canceled by its context.
2. A potential implicature
-> is an implicature that would arise from any of the components of a given utterance if that component were uttered in some linguistic or extralinguistic context, whether or not the implicature is an actual implicature of the given utterance.

Presupposition
a presupposition is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse.
A presupposition must be mutually known or assumed by the speaker and addressee for the utterance to be considered appropriate in context. It will generally remain a necessary assumption whether the utterance is placed in the form of an assertion, denial, or question, and can be associated with a specific lexical item or grammatical feature (presupposition trigger) in the utterance.
Ex:
Do you want to go to Tawang Mangu again?
It means that you have gone to Tawang Mangu before.

I think that's all..
thanks..

Endang Supriati
C1306040
Non_Reg '06

mustiko said...

implicature

implicature is something meant, implied or suggested distinct from what it said (wikipedia)
according to GRICE(1975)the speaker must obey four maxim. maxim is the orinsip that must obey the speakers textual or interpersonal to the communication clearly.there are
1.maxim of quantity; give enough contribution
ex;1. anak gadis saya sedang bekerja
2. anak gadis sya yang perempuan sedang bekerja
(1)enough contribution, clear
(2)hyperbole contribution
2. maxim of quality; informative
ex;(a)are u going to party?
(b)i dont like party
the speaker sure that he dont like party. fullfill maxim of quality
3. maxim of relevance;be relevant
ex;a;kamu mau minum apa?
b:yang hangat-hangat saja(b)understand
a:kamu mau minum apa?
b:sudah saya cuci(b)dont understand
4. maxim of manner;be prespicuous
ex;a:mau makan apa mie ayau bakso
b: bakso aja lebih enak
c:mau makan apa?
d:sebenarnya bakso enak tapi aku lagi gak pengen makan bakso,mie juga enak tapi ada cabenya nanti aku sakit perut
a:jadi mau makan ap?
{a}answer is correct but {d}answer is dissobey the maxim manners

Presuppositon is implicit assumption about the world or background beliefing relating to uterance whose thruth.{wikipedia}

example: apa kamu mau berbohong lagi? means that he or she lie before.

Ratna Mustika w
c1306061

ningrum said...

good evening sir,,,,
Implicature
implicature is something meant, implied, or suggested distinct from what is said. Implicatures can be part of sentence meaning or dependent on conversational context, and can be conventional or unconventional.
Example:
ASA:kamu pinter sekali ya Sisi sampai-sampai ikut remidi lagi...
SISI:Hehe...ya habisnya tadi malam aku tidak belajar kok.

Presupposition
Presupposition is the mechanism used implicitly to make assumption in day to day language whereas direct pronouncement is the means used to do so clearly (although all but the simplest assertions will themselves contain presuppositions).
Example:
Kamu mau bolos lagi ya..
It means that she or he has absented.

I think it is my opinion about implicature and presupposition thank u,,,,

Ratna kusumaningrum
C1306060
Non-Reg'06

ningrum said...

evening sir sorry I came back,,,,

any two kind of implicature there are
1.Actual implicature is any potential implicature that is not canceled by its context.

2.Potential implicatures an implicature that would arise from any of the components of a given utterance if that component were uttered in some linguistic or extralinguistic context, whether or not the implicature is an actual implicature of the given utterance.

also two kind of presupposition there are

1.Actual presupposition is any potential presuppotion that is not canceled by its context
2.A potential presupposition is a pressupposition that is triggered by some part of utterance taken in isolation but that may or may not be a presupposition of the whole utterance
thank you sir,,,

Ratna kusumaningrum
c1306060

Nova said...

Implicature is the meaning from what it said.
Implicature has four maxim, there are :1. Maxim of quantity
Ex: Anak gadis saya sudah punya suami
2. Maxim of quality

Ex; Universitas Sebelas Maret terletak di Surakarta.
3. Maxim of relevance
Ex: A: Kamu mau makan apa?
B: Sayur dan tempe goreng saja.
4. Maxim of Manner
Ex: A: Mau lihat apa,drama atau animasi?
B: Aminasi saja. Gambarnya lebih lucu.


Presupposition

Presupposition is an explicit assumption about the situation or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for fixed in speech.

Ex: Do you want to go to Sondokoro again?
( It mean that She or He have gone to Sondokoro before )


Wikipedia, Pesona Bahasa

Nova R
C1306056

soupfree said...

Presupposition
Presupposition defined as an assumption underlying a statement, which remains in force even the statement itself, is denied. Presupposition is discussed as the relation between two presuppositions. For instance, if we said that the sentence in (1a.) contains presupposition “p” and (1b.) contains presupposition ‘q”, so we can use the symbol of “>>” as “presupposed”, its relation is described in (1c.);
(1). a. Dani’s cat is cute(=p)
b. Dani has a cat (=q)
c. p>>q
It will be interesting when we make the sentence in (1a.) into a negative form, like in (2a.), but we will find that the presupposition doesn’t change. It is shown in (2c.)
(2). a. Dani’s cat is not cute (=p)
b. Dani has a cat (=q)
c. p>>q
Presupposition triggers:
1. Definite description: see
2. Factive: regret, aware, realize, know, be proud of
3. Implicative: manage, forget
4. Change of state: stop, begin, continue
5. Iterative: again, before, return, repeat
6. Verb of Judging : accuse, criticize
7. Temporal clouses: before , while, since
8. Cleft sentences: it was Ati who…
9. Contrast.
The types and the examples of presupposition
1. Existential; X >> X ada
2. Factive; Saya menyesal meninggalkan >> Saya meninggalkan
3. Non-factive; Dia berpura-pura sakit >> Dia tidak sakit
4. Lexical; Dia berencana melarikan diri >> Dia mencoba melarikan diri
5. Structural; Kapan dia meninggal? >> Dia meninggal
6. Counterfactual; Andaikata saya tidak sakit >> Saya sakit



Implicature
Grice defines implicature as “what speaker can imply, suggest or mean as distinct from what the speaker literally says”. Implicature provides some explicit account of how it is possible to mean more than what is actually said.
Example;
A : Gimana dokter kondisi suami saya?
B : Maaf bu, kami sudah berusaha secara maksimal. (Dalam hal ini sang dokter tidak secara langsung mengatakan bahwa suaminya sudah tidak bisa tertolong lagi atau meninggal, karena akan membuat si isteri shock).
It seems that there is no relation between the question and the answer. If there is no mutual knowledge both participants, the communication fails because it seems that B does not fulfill Grice’s maxims;
In addition to identifying and classifying the phenomenon of implicature, Grice developed a theory designed to explain and predict conversational implicatures. He also sought to describe how such implicatures are understood. Grice (1975: 26–30) postulated a general “Cooperative Principle,” and four “maxims” specifying how to be cooperative. It is common knowledge, he asserted, that people generally follow these rules for efficient communication.
Cooperative Principle. Contribute what is required by the accepted purpose of the conversation.
1. The maxim of quality ; true information and enough evidence.
2. The maxim of quantity ; informative enough, not less not more.
3. The maxim of relevance ; relevant/ have close relationship.
4. The maxim of manner ; be perspicuous, brief, orderly, not ambiguous, clear not obscure.

supri C1307510 said...

I am sorry sir, this is my second posting.
I would like to revise my first posting because I forgot to write down my name and the reference.
Presupposition
Presupposition defined as an assumption underlying a statement, which remains in force even the statement itself, is denied. Presupposition is discussed as the relation between two presuppositions. For instance, if we said that the sentence in (1a.) contains presupposition “p” and (1b.) contains presupposition ‘q”, so we can use the symbol of “>>” as “presupposed”, its relation is described in (1c.);
(1). a. Dani’s cat is cute (=p)
b. Dani has a cat (=q)
c. p>>q
It will be interesting when we make the sentence in (1a.) into a negative form, like in (2a.), but we will find that the presupposition doesn’t change. It is shown in (2c.)
(2). a. Dani’s cat is not cute (=p)
b. Dani has a cat (=q)
c. p>>q
The types and the examples of presupposition
1. Existential; X >> X ada
2. Factive; Saya menyesal meninggalkan >> Saya meninggalkan
3. Non-factive; Dia berpura-pura sakit >> Dia tidak sakit
4. Lexical; Dia berencana melarikan diri >> Dia mencoba melarikan diri
5. Structural; Kapan dia meninggal? >> Dia meninggal
6. Counterfactual; Andaikata saya tidak sakit >> Saya sakit
Presupposition triggers:
1. Definite description: see
2. Factive: regret, aware, realize, know, be proud of
3. Implicative: manage, forget
4. Change of state: stop, begin, continue
5. Iterative: again, before, return, repeat
6. Verb of Judging : accuse, criticize
7. Temporal clouses: before , while, since
8. Cleft sentences: it was Ati who…
9. Contrast.
Implicature
Grice defines implicature as “what speaker can imply, suggest or mean as distinct from what the speaker literally says”. Implicature provides some explicit account of how it is possible to mean more than what is actually said.
Example;
A : Gimana dokter kondisi suami saya?
B : Maaf bu, kami sudah berusaha secara maksimal. (Dalam hal ini sang dokter tidak secara langsung mengatakan bahwa suaminya sudah tidak bisa tertolong lagi atau meninggal, karena akan membuat si isteri shock).
It seems that there is no relation between the question and the answer. If there is no mutual knowledge both participants, the communication fails because it seems that B does not fulfill Grice’s maxims;
In addition to identifying and classifying the phenomenon of implicature, Grice developed a theory designed to explain and predict conversational implicatures. He also sought to describe how such implicatures are understood. Grice (1975: 26–30) postulated a general “Cooperative Principle,” and four “maxims” specifying how to be cooperative. It is common knowledge, he asserted, that people generally follow these rules for efficient communication.
Cooperative Principle. Contribute what is required by the accepted purpose of the conversation.
1. The maxim of quality ; true information and enough evidence.
2. The maxim of quantity ; informative enough, not less not more.
3. The maxim of relevance ; relevant/ have close relationship.
4. The maxim of manner ; be perspicuous, brief, orderly, not ambiguous, clear not obscure.

Supriyanto C1307510


References
Yule, George, 2006. Pragmatik. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
Waskito, Budi, 2008. Handout.

dian karuniawati said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
dian karuniawati said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
dian karuniawati said...

1. Implicature
An implicature is something meant, implied, or suggested distinct from what is said. It can be part of sentence meaning or dependent on conversational context, and can be conventional or unconventional. It is anything that is inferred from an utterance but that is not a condition for the truth of the utterance.
Implicature provides some explicit account of how it is possible to mean more than what is actually said.
Examples:
1. deby : Are you going to Tom’s party?
Sam : I have to work.
* speaker means differs from what the sentence used by the speaker means.
2. A: How is the condition of her mother?
B : I saw a white flag on the way to her house just now.
* it seems that there is no mutual knowledge or the knowledge of world on both participants, the communication fails.
3. Some of the boys were at the party
* The expression implicates in most contexts Not all of the boys were at the party.
2. Presupposition
Presupposition can be defined as an assumption underlying a statement, which remains in force even statement itself is denied. A presupposition is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for granted in discourse. It must be mutually known or assumed by the speaker and addressee for the utterance to be considered appropriate in context. It will generally remain a necessary assumption whether the utterance is placed in the form of an assertion, denial, or question, and can be associated with a specific lexical item or grammatical feature (presupposition trigger) in the utterance.
Example:
1. a. John managed to sell his shares before the market crashed.
b. John didn’t manage to sell his shares before the market crashed.
• entailment or logical consequence : A ll B
If A is true, then B is true.
If A is false, then B is true.
2. John regrets that he stopped doing linguistics before he left Cambridge
• The utterance has the following presuppositions:
• There is someone uniquely identifiable to speaker and addressee as John.
• John stopped doing linguistics before he left Cambridge.
• John was doing linguistics before he left Cambridge.
• John left Cambridge.
• John had been at Cambridge
3. Do you want to do it again?
• Presupposition: that you have done it already, at least once
Jane no longer writes fiction.
• Presupposition: that Jane once wrote fiction.





DIAN KARUNIAWATI
C1307503

gunzgunz said...

assalamualaikum Mr.Depe ,
i have been sent my comment yesterday, but in a wrong references i guess, i sent in references about introduction of semantic and pragmatic. And I'd like to send my comment again .

Presupposition
In the linguistic branch of pragmatics, a presupposition is the act of presupposing, an antecedent implication and presumption. A presupposition must be mutually known by the speaker and hearer for the utterance to be considered appropriate in context.

importantly, contradiction of an expression does not change its presuppositions,
example:
1. I want to do it again
2. I don't want to do it again

Both presuppose that the subject has done it already one or more times.


Implicature
The aspect of meaning that a speaker conveys, implies, or suggests without directly expressing. Implicature provides some explicit account of how it is possible to mean more than what is actually said.
example:
1. Can you pass the sugar ?
Although the utterance “Can you pass the sugar?” is exactly a request for information about one's ability to pass sugar, the understood implicature is a request for sugar.

2. Ani: How is the condition of Tina's mother?
Andi: I saw a red flag on the way to her house now.
It seem that there is no relation between the question and the answer. Andi's utterance implicates that Tina's mother is died. If there is no mutual knowledge or the knowledge of world on both participants, the communication fails because it seems that Andi does not fulfill Grice's theory (cooperative principles of conversation) there are, the maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, maxim of manner. These maxims are not arbitrary conventions, but rather describe rational means for conducting cooperative exchanges.

GUNUNG DEWANTARA
C1306006
NonReg-'06

elsilencio said...

Mr. Depe,i'm sory before because i make mistake that i sent my work not in this references for pragmatic..

'd like to try give an explanation of implicature and presupposition..

implicature

implicature is anything that is inferred from an utterance but that is not a condition for the truth of the utterance.in the other word implicature provide more meaning or different meaning.

Example:some people believe that junk food is dangerous..
In this case we can conclude that not everyone believe that junk food be dangerous..

presupposition

Presupposition is a presupposition is an implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to an utterance whose truth is taken for fixed in speech

example:Deny no longer drinks alcohol after he married ..
presuppositions:

a. Deny drinks alcohol for once
b. Deny is a alcoholic before he married
c. Deny is married

thank u very much

Adhitiya [C1306028]

setyo said...

Setyo Cahyaningtyas ( C1307530)
Implicature
Implicature provides some explicit account of how it is possible to mean more than what is actually said. (Levinson,1985:97).
Example; A; How is the condition of her mother?
B; I saw a white flag on the way to her house just now.
It seems that there is no relation between the question and the answer. If there is no mutual knowledge or the knowledge of world on both participants, the communication fails because it seems that B does not fulfill Grice’s theory of Implicature (cooperative principles of conversation)
1. The maxim of Quality: true information and enough evidence
2. The maxim of quantity; informative enough, not less or more.
3. The maxim of Relevance: relevant or have close relationship
4. The maxim of manner; be perspicuous-brief, orderly, not ambiguous, clear not obscure.
These maxims are not arbitrary conventions, but rather describe rational means for conducting cooperative exchanges.

Presupposition
Presupposition defined as an assumption underlying a statement, which remains in force even the statement itself, is denied.
The types and the examples of presupposition
1. Existential; X >> X ada
2. Factive; Saya menyesal memukul dia >> Saya memukul dia
3. Non-factive; Dia berpura-pura sakit >> Dia tidak sakit
4. Lexical; Dia berencana merampok bank>> Dia mencoba merampok bank
5. Structural; Kapan dia sakit? >> Dia sakit
6. Counterfactual; Andaikata saya tidak lulus ujian >>saya lulus ujian

Presupposition triggers:
1. Definite description: see
2. Factive: regret, aware, realize, know, be proud of
3. Implicative: manage, forget
4. Change of state: stop, begin, continue
5. Iterative: again, before, return, repeat
6. Verb of Judging : accuse, criticize
7. Temporal clouses: before , while, since
8. Cleft sentences: it was Ati who…
9. Contrast.

dinar said...

Good morning sir...
Dinar (C 1307504) said...
According to Grice, Implicature is study cases in which what a speaker mean differs from what the sentence used by the speaker means.

example:
Temon : Gimana keadaan Muklis del?
Abdel: Kita hanya bisa berdoa...
( Dalam kasus ini Abdel secara implicit menyampaikan bahwa Muklis dalm keadaan kritis, dikarenakan Abdel tidak ingin membuat Temon shock)

Implicature devided into four major as follows,Cancelability, Non- detachbility, calculability,Non-conventionality.

Grice ‘s theory of implicature or cooperative principle :
1. The maxim of quality: true information and enough evidence
2. The maxim of quantity: informative enough
3. The maxim of relevance : relevant.
4. The maxim of manner: be brief, orderly, not ambiguous, and clear.

Presupposition
As I got in pragmatic subject, Presupposition constitutes assumption or inferences that implicit in particular linguistic expression. A presupposition must be mutually known or assumed by the speaker and addressee for the utterance to be considered appropriate in context. It will generally remain a necessary assumption whether the utterance is placed in the form of an assertion, denial, or question, and can be associated with a specific lexical item or grammatical feature (presupposition trigger) in the utterance.
Presupposition triggers ( source from Waskito, Budi, 2008. Handout):
1. Definite description: see
2. Factive: regret, aware, realize, know, be proud of
3. Implicative: manage, forget
4. Change of state: stop, begin, continue
5. Iterative: again, before, return, repeat
6. Verb of Judging : accuse, criticize
7. Temporal clouses: before , while, since
8. Cleft sentences: it was Ati who…
9. Contrast.

Later on, I need some additional information about the example of honorific concord
Hopefully, I get the information soon.

presti c1306510 said...

Assalamualaikum, Sir.
I am Presty Rika Wati C1306510.
I would like to give my little understanding about the differences of Implicature and Pressuposition.
Implicature.
Implicature provides some explicit account of how it is possible to mean more than what is actually said. For example :
1. I am sorry, I'm late. My Panther has a puncture.
the implicature is he has a car (panther : isuzu)
2. Dina borrowed my car for two weeks and returned it without petrol. I said to her "How pity you are, could not find a petrol station)
the implicature is Dina didn't fill the petrol of my car.
Pressuposition
Presupossition is an implicit assumption about the world/background belief relating to an utterance, whose truth is taken for fixed in speech. A pressuposition must be known by the speaker and addressee for the utterance to be considered appropriate in context. It will generated in the form of a statement, denial, or question, and can be associated with a spesific lexical item//grammatical feature in the utterance.
For axample : Do you want to do it again
the implicature is that you have done it already, at least once.
that is all sir.thank you

ehud said...

Adi Ehud Lande
C1307516 (Non Reg 07)
IMPLICATURE
According to Levinson (1985:97), implicature provides some explicit account of how it is possible to mean (in more general sense) more than what is actually said. Example:
Jane : Can you accompany me to the shopping centre?
Steve : I’m sorry, my tiger has a puncture.
Jane : It’s okay Steve, I’ll go there by taxi.
It seems that there is no relation between the question and the answer. If there is no mutual knowledge of both participants, the communication can not be cooperative.
In this case both Jane and Steve have the same understanding that the tiger is a name of motorcycle. It means that Steve can not accompany Jane to the shopping centre because his motorcycle has a puncture.
Moreover, Grice develops a theory designed to explain and predict conversational implicatures. Grice ‘s theory of implicature or cooperative principle :
1. The maxim of quality ; true information and enough evidence.
Ex : A: Kapan anak anda lahir?
B: Tanggal 21 Maret 1999
2. The maxim of quantity ; informative enough, not less not more.
Ex : A : Knapa kamu nggak njemput aku?
B : Gila, hari ini aku 3 kali presentasi
3. The maxim of relevance ; relevant/ have close relationship.
Ex : A : Kapan kita bisa mein bareng lagi?
B : Minggu ini kakak ku merit.
4. The maxim of manner ; be perspicuous, brief, orderly, not ambiguous, clear not obscure
Ex : A : Rino mengerjakan program itu dengan cepat dan efisien.
These maxims are not arbitrary conventions, but rather describe rational means for conducting cooperative exchanges.
PRESUPPOSITION
This can be defined as an assumption underlying a statement, which remains in force even the statement itself, is denied.
Presupposition triggers:
1. Definite description: see
2. Factive: realize, regret, know, be aware, proud of
3. Implicative: manage, forget
4. Change of state: stop, begin, continue
5. Iterative: another time, before, return, again, repeat
6. Verb of Judging : accuse, criticize
7. Temporal clouses: before , while, since
8. Cleft sentences: it was Joni who…/ it wasn’t joni
9. Comparison/ Contrast.
Example:
I’m sorry sir I’m late. My Corola has a puncture.
The speaker wish that the hearer (the lecturer) know that he has a car.
Reference:
Waskito, Budi, 2008. Handout.

presti c1306510 said...

Assalamualaikum, Sir.
I am Presty Rika Wati C1306510.
I would like to give my little understanding about the differences of Implicature and Pressuposition.
Implicature.
Implicature provides some explicit account of how it is possible to mean more than what is actually said. For example :
1. I am sorry, I'm late. My Panther has a puncture.
the implicature is he has a car (panther : isuzu)
2. Dina borrowed my car for two weeks and returned it without petrol. I said to her "How pity you are, could not find a petrol station)
the implicature is Dina didn't fill the petrol of my car.
Pressuposition
Presupossition is an implicit assumption about the world/background belief relating to an utterance, whose truth is taken for fixed in speech. A pressuposition must be known by the speaker and addressee for the utterance to be considered appropriate in context. It will generated in the form of a statement, denial, or question, and can be associated with a spesific lexical item//grammatical feature in the utterance.
For axample : Do you want to do it again
the implicature is that you have done it already, at least once.

presti c1306510 said...

Assalamualaikum, Sir.
I am Presty Rika Wati C1306510.
I would like to give my little understanding about the differences of Implicature and Pressuposition.
Implicature.
Implicature provides some explicit account of how it is possible to mean more than what is actually said. For example :
1. I am sorry, I'm late. My Panther has a puncture.
the implicature is he has a car (panther : isuzu)
2. Dina borrowed my car for two weeks and returned it without petrol. I said to her "How pity you are, could not find a petrol station)
the implicature is Dina didn't fill the petrol of my car.
Pressuposition
Presupossition is an implicit assumption about the world/background belief relating to an utterance, whose truth is taken for fixed in speech. A pressuposition must be known by the speaker and addressee for the utterance to be considered appropriate in context. It will generated in the form of a statement, denial, or question, and can be associated with a spesific lexical item//grammatical feature in the utterance.
For axample : Do you want to do it again
the implicature is that you have done it already, at least once.

Thiery "Daniel" Henry said...

Sir, I have a question.
I got a sentence of English conversation which said:
"that's not my cup of tea" that means not the person's tea cup. So what is it called?

debie said...

Implicature is an implicit meaning in a spoken. It shows the inter-connection between the speakers. There are two kinds of implicature : An actual implicature and A potential implicature.

Implicature didn’t shows the reality.
Ex : A : Wuih, motornya kinclong euy …
B : Ya..ya.. baru 3 bulan tiak dicuci !!?!

A : Embernya sudah penuh.
B : Ya, nanti saya matikan. (kran air)

Indirectly A ordering B to killing the water faucet, but B has understood about that.

Presupposition is like an implicit assumption. Usually, the partner has understood what the first speaker wants to say. It contains the invisible meaning but mutually known by both of them.
Ex : Mau Patah hati lagi ??


Debora wulan C1306036

TiK@SasIngA-C13_21 said...

PRESUPPOSITION AND IMPLICATURE

Presupposition is an implicit assumption relates to an utterance. Moreover something that assumed has truth before it is approved by participants in speech. It must be known by the speaker and hearer, and also the utterance must suitable in context.

Here is the example:
- How many cigarette do you smoke everyday?
The presupposition can be found that you usually smoke cigarette (habit).
- Sely is leaved by her husband and now she lives alone.
Presupposition: Sely’s husband has died or Sely is divorced by her husband.

Implicature means analyze the speaker’s word to determine the meaning which implicit, absolute, utterance no doubt. Implicature also causes misunderstanding

Here is the dialogue between two housemaids:

A: Gaji saya sekarang naik menjadi Rp.75.000,00 sebulan. Gajimu berapa?
B: Gaji saya tiga puluh sebulan.
A: Ah, masa gajimu Rp.30.000,00 sebulan!
B: Ya benar,gaji saya tiga puluh hari sebulan.

The example A salary Rp.75.000,00 for each month. While B means thirty day in 1 month. It is called implicature between A and B whereas both of them are right

In addition, Implicature also used to explain what is said and what is implied.
Example:
A: Jam berapa sekarang?
B: Kereta api belum lewat.

B understands what A ask about the time.

By: Septianingrum Kartika Nugraha
C1307021