Monday, December 22, 2008


Hi all,

Some of you (Non-Regular Program) sent me many SMSs asking for the material for discussion on Sociolinguistics.

Here is the answer. When discussing sociolinguistics, at least we have to cover the following:

  • Definition of Sociolinguistics
  • Language varieties: Standard language, dialects, registers, Pidgins, and Creoles.
  • Speech community
  • Bilingualism and Multilingualism, including Code Choice (Code Switching and Code Mixing).

Well, post your comments in our new discussion forum at QuickTopic. Click here to start the discussion.



debie said...


Written by :

1. Debora Wulan Y. C 1306036
2. Eros Kusuma C 13060
3. Nova Riyanasari C 1306056

A. The variety of language

A language should be Arbitrary and Conventional. In this chapter, we study not only about the system on the language itself, but also on the language variation.
 Language Various and Status:
• Various people use language for various purposes.
• In certain language, there are a diaglossia:
High Level : Formal
Low Level : Informal
The varieties concept becomes famous when the linguist connected the language and social aspect. Language sees as a dynamic communications media, which accommodate social aspect of the users and the uses.

 Two kinds of language variation:
1. Regional dialect (dialectology).
- caused by regional/ dialects.
 Pronunciation (suroboyonan/ banyumasan):
E.g.: Gunung  [gunu] or [gono]
Kidul  [kiul] or [keol]
 Diction:
E.g.: Jeding Kulah
Dalan Embong
 Grammar:
E.g.: wis dakwaca
Wis diwaca ambek aku.

2. Social dialect (Sociodialect).
- caused by education background, job/ profession, or situation/
degree of formality (Social class, sex, ethnic and age).
E.g: [f] Jusuf Fahrudin Fachri Alif
[p] Jusup Pahrudin Pahri Alip

Linguistics studies which studying the relation with social aspects and language phenomenon is called sociolinguistics. According to wikipedia,”Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used.”

B. Language variation based on the use.

Language used by the society for communication.

 In terms of communication:
 Field (medan).
• Topic E.g. : Hukum, perbengkelan, kedokteran
• Events E.g. : (kasasi, grasi), (rem, aki), (perban, pinset), etc
 Tenor (suasana).
• In relation between speakers: politeness, formality, status.
E.g. : Tidak - nggak
Bicara - ngomong
Bapak/ ibu - om/ tante
 Mode (cara).  role of language
• Chanel/ jalur E.g. : face to face

 In terms of style:
 Intimate
- Between intimated speaker.
E.g. : Gue, lo, bete, ember, etc
 Casual
- In informal situation, but not necessarily intimate.
E.g.: chat on train/ bus.
 Consultative
- Between speaker in different level.
E.g. : Teacher – student
Seller - buyer
 Formal
- In formal situation.
E.g. : seminar, meeting, etc.
 Frozen
- very stiff situation.
E.g. : ceremony, military commands, court, etc.

C. Rules and social language function.

 Language use: SPEAKING (Hymes, 1974):
 Latar (setting and scene)
• Time and place E.g. : Solo, at
 Peserta (participants)
• The speakers E.g. : Amir, Agus, etc.
 Hasil (end)
• Objectives/ purpose of speak
 Amanat (act sequence)
• Form and content of speak
E.g. : Dia berdoa,”…”
Dia memohon kepada tuhan, …
 Cara (key)
• Manner of speech. E.g. : relax/ serious.
 Sarana (instrumentalities)
• Mode of speech E.g. : written/ spoken.
 Norma (norms)
• Rule on speaking
E.g. : mahasiswa bertanya setelah diberi kesempatan.
 Jenis (genres)
• Category of speech
E.g. : sajak, teka-teki, kuliah dan doa.

Language Function
SITUASI (kontekstual)
PESAN (referensial)
(emotif) (konatif/direktif)
JALUR (fatis)
ASPEK BAHASA (metalinguistik)

Note :
a) SITUATION (kontekstual) :
- the moment while the speaking happened ( penekanan pada faktor tempat
terjadinya tuturan).
E.g.: Hakim memesuki ruang sidang, hadirin dipersilakan bangkit berdiri.
b) MESSAGE (referensial) :
- the message/ content or discussion topic. (isi atau topik pembicaraan).
E.g.: pengamat sepak bola membahas tentang pertandingan sepak bola.
c) SPEAKER (emotif) :
- the cynosure is the speaker itself. (Express the emotion: happy/sad/etc)
E.g.: “Horeee!!” , or “sialan!!”
d) SPEAKER’S PATNER (konatif/direktif) :
- comand or exclamation. (seruan atau suruhan).
E.g.: “help!!”, or “be carefull”
e) BAND (fatis)
- the chanel (terbukanya jalur tuturan), like greeting.
E.g.: ”apa kabar?”, or ”mau kemana?”
f) MESSAGE FORM (puitis)
- the cynosure on the message form.
E.g.: tulisan, goresan.
g) LANGUAGE ASPECT (metalinguistik)
- the form in the Ianguage or expression which centrally at the meaning or
the definition (terpusat pada makna dan batasan istilah).
E.g.: H2O dalam kimia berarti air, merdeka berarti bebas.

D. Language society.

 A group of people who pretend that they use the same language
(Halliday, 1968).
Indonesia language SL indonesia
Bahasa melayu
Malaysia language SL Malaysia

E. Language and veneering of society.

 Sociodialect has a strong relation with economic-social class of pertinent Language. The variety of Language in this case always concern with the assessment between good (prestigious) and bad (stigmatized).

Dialect Socio-Economic class good and bad
Prestigious and stigmatized

More high socio-economic class, more ideal uses a language.

F. Touch language.
 In this world there are a language society, which meet, living together, influencing the other language society. In this situation, we can find what the called of touch language or contact language.

Monolingualism  unilingual / monoglot

plurilingual / polygot

G. Bilingualism.

 The usage of two language in the same time, or ixing the two language in the same time (Weinreich,1968)

Code Switching: Speaker changes from one language to another in one
speech event.
E.g.: A: Piye, wis eneng pengumuman beasiswane?
B: Wis, Mbak. Alhamdulillah, ketampa.
A: Wuuih. Great. Congratulations…!

Code Mixing: Speaker mixes two or more languages in one speech event.
E.g.: A. Weh, file soal ujiane neng endi?
B. Neng komputer kulon, folder jurusan

Interference: Speaker breaks the linguistic rule because of the influence of
another language
E.g.: Pak Agus Depe kecil sendiri di Jurusan Sastra Inggris.

H. Language Manner in multilanguage society.

In general, there are five languages manner, such as:
▫ Standard Language
▫ Vernacular Language
▫ Lingua Franca
▫ Pidgin
▫ Creole
Language manner in multilingual countries can emerge as social and political change effect in pertinent state.
The Language manner will be explained one to another:

I. Standart language.
 This Language manner usually has passed the codification process that is phase of structure settlement, spelling, and vocabulary. The settlement is usually reached to the Language dictionary compilation. Standard Language is often found in write Language than oral. But It does not close the possibility in a few situation act to say, standard Language manner is also used.
E.g.: when speech event or ritual event this Language manner is assessed
more prestigious. Standard Language manner also politically has
function as official language or national language, like Language
Indonesia in our state.

J. Vernacular.
 Vernacular is the language variation which don’t have formal
status. It used in certain area. Many people use this language in
their daily conversation. The people who is the same region
or area prefer to use the vernacular language than the unity
language. The everyday language spoken by people distinguished
from literary language.
E.g.: If we reside in the Old Market, in Tangerang. Usually buyer
will use the local Language that is Sudanese language. But if we
reside in out side of old market, we saw that the society use the
China Ke language or Hokkian to communicate.

K. Lingua Franca.
 The language that is used as a means of communication by group, but none of them become the owner of the language.
 This language usually used in emergency
E.g.: - When the Javanese people go to West Java and meat the
Sundanese, and they need to talk each other, they don’t
used their own language, but they will use the Indonesian
language as the unity language to make a conversation.
- English is a lingua franca used by Japanese doing business in
Finland or by Swedes in Saudi Arabia.

L. Pidgin.
 Nobody’s native language (a language having no native speaker), may arise when two speaker of different language with no common language try to have makeshift conversation.
 There are ore than a hundred pidgin in this world. Most of them influenced by Europe language.
 A pidgin develop as a means of communication between people who don’t have a common language.
 It used for specific purpose : trade.
 The prestige of pidgin is very low. Many pidgins are ‘contact vernacular’. It does only exist for one speech event.
 In creating a pidgin, a colonial language becomes a ‘super substrade’
E.g.: - between traders who used a colonial language.
- Melanesian pidgin, Salomon Island pidgin, etc.

M. Creole.
 Creole is a pidgin that has become the first language of a new generation of speakers.
 A language that was originally a pidgin, but it has become native.
Many Creole have developed with literature of own.
E.g.: Haitian creole
Jamaican Creole
Krio in Sierra Leone
Tok Pisin (nowadays it become the official language in Papua
New Guinea).


• Yuwono, Untung dkk 2005. Pesona Bahasa, Gramedia Pustaka Utama : Jakarta.

• Handout and note from Mr. Agus D.P, M. Call

zabiLaengga said...

Posted by :
1. Kinanthi Weningsari (C1307012)
2. Zabila Rizky P (C1307025)
3. Sari Mustika K R (C1307060)
4. Yasinta D N (C1307065)

Definition of Sociolinguistics

• The study of the characteristics of language varieties, the characteristics of their functions and the characteristics of their speakers as these 3 constantly interact, change and change another within a speech community (J.A. Fishman 1972:4)
• The study of language in operation, its purpose is to investigate how the convention of the language use relate to other aspects of social behavior (C. Criper and H.G Widdowson 1975:156)
• A developing subfield of linguistics which takes speech variation as its focus, viewing variation or its social context (Nancy Parrot Hickerson 1980:81)

Language Varieties

i. The Standard Language
This is the variety which forms the basis of printed English in newspapers and books, which is used in the mass media and which is taught in schools. It is the variety we normally try to teach to those who want to learn English as a second language. It is clearly associated with education and broadcasting in public contexts and is more easily described in terms of the written language (i.e. vocabulary, spelling, grammar) than the spoken language.
ii. Dialects
Dialect describes features of grammar and vocabulary, as well as aspects of pronunciation.
American dialect: You don’t know what you’re talking about.
Scottish English: Ye dinnae ken whit yer haverin’ aboot.
(It has the same meaning as the American dialect but it pronounces different)

iii. Pidgins
A pidgin is a variety of a language (e.g. English) which developed for some practical purpose, such as trading, among groups of people who had a lot of contact, but who did not know each other’s language.
There are several English Pidgins still used today. They are characterized by an absence of any complex grammatical morphology and a limited vocabulary. Inflectional suffixes such as –s (plural) and –‘s (possessive) on nouns in Standard English are rare in Pidgins, while structures like tu buk (‘two books’) and du gyal pleis (‘the girl’s place) are common.
The origin of many words in Pidgins can be phrases from other languages, such as one word used for ‘ruin, destroy’ which is bagarimap (derived from the English phrase “bugger him up”), or for ‘lift’ which is haisimap (from “hoist him up”), or for ‘us’ which is yumi (from “you plus me”).
The syntax of Pidgins can be quite unlike the languages from which terms were borrowed and modified, as can be seen in this example from an earlier stage of Tok Pisin:
Baimbai (by and by)
hed (head)
bilongyum(belong you)
gain (again)
‘Your head will soon get well again’

iv. Creoles
Creoles are considered to be between six and twelve million people still using Pidgin languages and between ten and seventeen million using descendants from Pidgins. When a Pidgin develops beyond its role as a trade language and becomes the first language of a social community, it is described as a Creole.
The separate vocabulary elements of a Pidgin can become grammatical elements in Creole. The form bambai yu go (‘by and by you go’) in early Tok Pisin gradually shortened to bai yu go, then to yu bai go, and finally to yu bigo, with a grammatical structure not unlike that of its English translation equivalent, you will go.

Speech Community
Speech community is a concept in sociolinguistics that describes a more or less discrete group of people who use language in a unique and mutually accepted way among themselves.
Speech communities can be members of a profession with a specialized jargon, distinct social groups like high school students or hip hop fans, or even tight-knit groups like families and friends. Members of speech communities will often develop slang or jargon to serve the group's special purposes and priorities.
For example, your book Language Files gives you an example of speech from an older man with many well known characteristics of Appalachian English:
1) I used to could read. (double modal)
2) I ain't no girl now. (multiple negation)
3) He has a broken back ____ was never set. ("that" deletion)
4) Put some bakin' sody on it. (sody instead of soda)
5) I fell upside of the building. (lexical substitution--upside of for against the side of)
What they point out, though, is that the speaker is a native of Southern Ohio, not actually a native of Appalachia. And his speech is affected by factors such as age, sex, and socio-economic status.

Bilingualism and Multilingualism

Bilingualism: The ability to speak in two languages.
Multilingualism: The ability to speak in two or more languages.
Code Choice:
I. Code Switching
Code Switching is a term in Linguistics referring to using more than one language / variety in conversation and the syntactically and phonologically appropriate use of multiple varieties. Code switching can occur between sentences (intrasentetial). Code switching can be distinguished from other language contact phenomena such as Loan translation, borrowing, pidgins and creoles, and transfer / interference.

A: Piye, wis eneng pengumuman beasiswane?
B: Wis mbak, Alhamdulillah ketampa.
A: Wuih. Great.. Congratulation…!
II. Code Mixing
Code Mixing is speaker mixes two or more languages in one speech event.

A: Weh, file soal ujiane ning endi?
B: Ning computer kulon. Folder jurusan.
References :
• Sosiolinguistik by Abdul Chaer dan Leoni Agustina
• The study of language by George Yule
• Handout and note from Mr. Agus D.P, M. Call



Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of culture toward the language which is used by society.
Standard language
Standard language is a particular variety of a language which has been given formal status.
It is usually considered by speakers of the language to be more correct in some meaning than other dialects.
Dialect is the form of the language that is spoken in one area that maybe different from other form of the same language. It shows the features of grammar and vocabulary, as well as aspects of pronunciation.
Example :
American dialect : You don’t know what you’re talking about.
Scottish English : Ye dinnae ken whit yer haverin’ aboot.

A register is a smaller group of a language used for a particular purpose
Example :
An English speaker may use the correct grammar in pronounce words ending in -ing with a velar nasal.
Example : “ talking “ not “ talkin “ .
A pidgin is a new language which develops in situations where speakers of different languages need to communicate but don't share a general language.
When the stable pidgin has appeared, it is learned as a second language and used for communication among people who speak with the different languages.
Example : Chinese and Nigerian speak in English.
Creole is an appointed language which has adopted is vocabulary from another language, the vocabulary of a pidgin comes mainly from one particular language, but has the own unique grammatical rules.
Creole is like another language, its mean that Creole has full distance of functions.
Example : Gullah, Jamaican Creole and Hawaii Creole English.
 Speech community is a concept or principle in sociolinguistics which explains discrete group of people who use language which has characteristic( unique ) that accepted among themselves.
 Speech community consists of many members. It can be members of special social groups ( such as ; students in university and rocker ), the group of people who have profession with a specialized jargon.
 Speech community can emerge in internet because internet makes people easily to build communication with another, so many forums emerged in internet.

Bilingualism : Two languages : able to speak two languages (have two official languages, national or regional )
Example :
1. India, between English and Hindi/urdu
2. Paraguay, between Spanish and Guarani
3. Puerto-Rican community in New York, between English and Spanish
Multilingualism : More than two languages : Speaking use several different languages (more than two official languages, national or regional )
Code Switching is Speaker change one language to another language in a communication.
Example :
Wulan : Piye, wes ngerti hasil ujiane ?
Stevia : Wes Wul, Allamdulillah aku ketampa.
Wulan : Wuiih…. Greet Congratulation.

Code Mixing is Speaker mixing two or more languages in a communication.
Example :
Wulan : Weh, file bahan ujian linguistik neng endhi ?
Rizqi : Neng komputer etan, folder sastra.

Lyon, Lyon. 1981. Language And Linguistics. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
Handout and note from Mr. Agus DP, M. Call

NETI WULANDARI ( C 1307018 ) / 3A
STEVIA DESCARENZA ( C 1307022 ) / 3A
RIZQI ASHRIFAH ( C 1307057 ) / 3B

Thiery "Daniel" Henry said...

Sir, I have a question about the sociolinguistic, about macro sociolinguistic. The last group says that macro is the study of society in relation with the language, isn't it also the study of sociology? so what the difference?

siti said...

Siti Nur Chasanah, C1307531
Dewi Retno Pratiwi, C1307520
Dian Karuniawati C1307503

Sociolinguistics is branch of linguistics which studies the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. Levinson states
• Language varieties
A variety of language as a set of linguistic items with similar distribution. This definition allows us to treat all languages of some multilingual speaker, or community, as a single variety, since all the linguistic items concerned have similar social distribution.
1. Standard language
Standard variety is generally one which is written, and which has undergone some degree or regularization or codification, for example in a grammar and a dictionary).
2. Dialects
Dialects are simply linguistic varieties which are distinguishable in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation; the speech of people from different social, as well as regional groups may different in social dialect. For example: American standard English is distinguishable from Australian standard English, both differ from the British standard dialect.
3. Registers
Registers reflect changes in situational factors, such as addressee, setting, and task for topic. It describes the specific vocabulary associated with different occupational groups. It tends to be associated with particular groups of people or sometimes specific situations of use. For examples: journalese, baby-talk, sport commentators, etc.
4. Pidgins
A pidgin is a language which has no native speaker. It develops as a means of communication between people who do not have a common language. So pidgin is no one’s naïve language. Pidgins seem particularly arise when two groups with different language are communicating in a situation where there is also a third dominant language. Pidgin languages are created from the combined efforts of people who speak different languages. For example: on slave plantation in the 19th century, languages of trader between traders.
5. Creoles.
A creole is a pidgin which has acquired native speakers. Many of the languages which are called pidgins are in fact now creole languages. They are learned by children as their first language and used in a wide range of domains.
Example: Australian Roper River Creole
- im megimnginu he makes a canoe (present tense)
- im bin megim ginu he made a canoe (past tense)
- im megimbad ginu he is making a canoe (pr. Cont. )
- im bin megimbad ginu he was making a canoe (past Cont.)
• Speech community
A speech community is a group of people who shares at least a single speech variety and has the same rules for conducting and interpreting speech.
Example: rules in campus
• Bilingualism and Multilingualism, including Code Choice (Code Switching and Code Mixing).
a. Bilingualism and multilingualism
Speaker possesses and uses more than one language called bilingualism, whereas multilingualism is the speaker possesses more than two languages.
- Bilingualism
Besides possessing Javanese language as a mother tongue, he/she also possesses Indonesian language.
- Multilingualism
She/he possesses Javanese language, Indonesian language, English, and other languages.
●Code- switching and Code mixing
Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to using more than one language or variety in conversation, whereas code mixing is the process where a fluent bilingual uses two or more languages in talking to another by putting elements of one code into another code without any change at all in the situation. A code may be a language or a variety or style of a language. The term code mixing emphasizes hybridization, and the term code-switching emphasizes movement from one language to another. Mixing and switching probably occur to some extent in the speech of all bilinguals, so that there is a sense in which a person capable of using two languages.
There are four major types of switching:
(1) Tag-switching, in which tags and certain set phrases in one language are inserted into an utterance otherwise in another. Example: a Panjabi/English bilingual says: It's a nice day, hana? (hai nā isn't it).
(2) Intra-sentential switching, in which switches occur within a clause or sentence boundary. Example: Yoruba/English bilingual says: Won o arrest a single person (won o they did not).
(3) Intersentential switching, in which a change of language occurs at a clause or sentence boundary, where each clause or sentence is in one language or the other, example: a Spanish/English bilingual says: Sometimes I'll start a sentence in English y termino en español (and finish it in Spanish). This last may also occur as speakers take turns.
(4) Intra-word switching, in which a change occurs within a word boundary, for example in shoppã (English shop with the Panjabi plural ending) or kuenjoy (English enjoy with the Swahili prefix ku, meaning ‘to’).

Trudgill, Peter. 1974. Sociolinguistic: An Introduction. England, Harmonsworth: Penguin Books, Ltd.
Holems, Janet. 1992. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics.USA: Pearson Education Inc. (downloaded on December 19th, 2008. 09:23 AM) AND CODE-SWITCHING (downloaded on December24th, 2008. 15:25 pm) (downloaded on December 19th, 2008. 10:23 am) (downloaded on December 19th, 2008. 09:43 am) (downloaded on December 19th, 2008. 09:23 am)